There’s no written evidence which could inform us who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed according to the requirement and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing methods to those problems associated with all areas of human learning.
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.
The initial stage of educational technology is in conjunction with the utilization of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.
The next stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Usage of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken when it comes to these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.
The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn resulted in ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized procedure for instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a brand new dimension to educational technology. Something of self-learning centered on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest idea of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which is targeted on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the utilization of the computer in instruction. In accordance with it, educational technology is a systematic method of designing, carrying out and evaluating the full total procedure for teaching and learning when it comes to specific objectives centered on research.
Educational technology throughout the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, regardless of the uncertainty of the origin of the definition of, may be traced back to enough time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of varied handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were a few of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A portion of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of familiarity with the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. Throughout the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were created from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which is often considered as the initial steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that despite appearance of bronze and iron; people tried it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in various museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are a few of the evidences in favour of the cultures.
Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of the choice.
The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the data of iron smelting technology to lessen the price of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In several Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the past period prior to the development of written scripts.
Educational technology during the time of Ancient civilizations
In accordance with Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology may be traced back to enough time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. Atlanta divorce attorneys stage of human civilization, you can find an instructional technique or group of procedures designed to implement a specific culture that have been also supported by amount of investigations and evidences. The heightened the culture, the more technical became the technology of instruction built to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour designed to run an informed society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives resulted in diverse technologies of instruction.
The maximum advances in technology and engineering included the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies on the planet to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization that has been located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India along with some area of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost section of Balochistan, Iran).
There’s a long haul controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It’s assumed that their writing was at least appears to be or even a pictographic script. The script seemingly have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from to left. A lot of the writing was entirely on seals and sealings that have been probably used in trade and official & administrative work.
Harappan people had the data of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. These were the initial on the planet to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that particular of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis so it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese Civilization, a few of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they’ve given their first faltering step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.
Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was comprised of pictures of the actual such things as birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was comprised of above 500 hieroglyphs which are called hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs that have been discovered and rescued latter on provides the proof existence of several forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process that has been developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a good extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this resulted in the production of cheap paper, that has been a perfect aspect in the development of printing technology.
The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a perfect developmental aspect in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction according to the requirement of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.
In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was this is the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple such wireless barcode scanner things as the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It absolutely was limited by a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.
The season 1873 may certainly be a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a vibrant impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to supply for the proper sequencing of material for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of an over-all purpose computing device laid the inspiration of the present day computer and in 1943, the initial computing machine according to hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in that the computer functions essentially as a tutor along with the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.
At first of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, a psychiatrist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the applying of the data derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of accomplishing so.
Although the initial practical utilization of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television begun to be properly used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the initial time. It is to be cared that in 1960, consequently of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the start of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.
At that time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there is a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and only a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.
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